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Glenn Hegar
Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts
Glenn Hegar
Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts
Glenn Hegar
Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts

economy

Manufacturing Overview Women in the Workforce

Manufacturing Snapshot | Printable Manufacturing Snapshot (PDF)

The manufacturing sector transforms materials, substances or components into new products using mechanical, physical or chemical processes. As one of the broadest sectors of the economy, manufacturing includes 21 subsectors that create a wide range of products, from food and beverages to petrochemicals and automobiles. In 2016, manufacturing contributed $218.3 billion to Texas’ economy, the second-highest contributor behind financial activities. Women account for 27 percent of the state’s 843,000 jobs in this sector.

Quick Facts

  • Manufacturing contributed $218.3 billion to Texas’ gross state product in 2016, more than 13 percent of the total.
  • The sector provided nearly 843,000 jobs in 2017, 7 percent of all Texas jobs.
  • Fabricated metal product manufacturing had the largest share of jobs in the sector in 2017, at nearly 14 percent.
  • Between 2010 and 2017, the sector added more than 32,000 net additional positions, with the most growth in chemical manufacturing (more than 79,000).

Average regional multipliers for the manufacturing sector were used to estimate how an initial introduction of economic input in the sector, in the form of sales, jobs or earnings, affects the greater Texas economy. These multipliers capture “indirect” effects on industries that supply goods and services to the sector well as “induced” effects on industries that sell local goods and services — such as housing, food or entertainment — to workers in the manufacturing sector and its suppliers (Exhibit 1).1

Exhibit 1: Average Type 2 Multipliers for Manufacturing

Jobs*

  • Average Multiplier: 3.66
  • For every 100 jobs created, an additional 266 jobs are supported in all other industries within the Texas economy.

Sales

  • Average Multiplier: 2.03
  • For every $1 million in sales, an additional 1.03 million dollars in sales are generated by other industries within the Texas economy.

Earnings

  • Average Multiplier: 2.88
  • For every $1 million in earnings generated, an additional 1.88 million dollars in earnings are generated by other industries within the Texas economy.

*The multiplier effect in this analysis is applicable to any worker in this industry and does not differentiate effects by gender.

Sources: Emsi and Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts

Texas Women in Manufacturing

In 2017, women held nearly 229,000 jobs in manufacturing (Exhibit 2). Those jobs generate additional business activities that ultimately support about 609,000 jobs in all other industries of the Texas economy.2

Exhibit 2: Texas Manufacturing Jobs, 2017
Description NAICS Code* Total Jobs 2010 to 2017 Change Average Earnings Per Job** Women's Jobs Women’s Share of Jobs
Food Manufacturing 311 92,035 3,212 $53,414 35,952 39%
Beverage and Tobacco Product Manufacturing 312 15,889 4,699 $73,174 3,741 24%
Textile Mills 313 1,533 -1,002 $54,878 524 34%
Textile Product Mills 314 5,721 -168 $42,131 2,977 52%
Apparel Manufacturing 315 5,371 789 $44,943 3,392 63%
Leather and Allied Product Manufacturing 316 4,374 342 $45,431 2,407 55%
Wood Product Manufacturing 321 23,523 3,961 $50,887 5,265 22%
Paper Manufacturing 322 17,291 -361 $77,508 4,152 24%
Printing and Related Support Activities 323 25,016 -3,322 $55,515 10,334 41%
Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing 324 23,074 -1,326 $198,835 4,397 19%
Chemical Manufacturing 325 79,192 8,796 $137,950 20,065 25%
Plastics and Rubber Products Manufacturing 326 37,947 735 $62,912 11,297 30%
Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing 327 38,104 5,165 $71,528 6,230 16%
Primary Metal Manufacturing 331 19,359 -387 $73,725 3,130 16%
Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing 332 116,807 4,677 $71,736 23,572 20%
Machinery Manufacturing 333 85,414 -67 $101,577 18,343 21%
Computer and Electronic Product Manufacturing 334 90,280 -4,508 $150,322 26,893 30%
Electrical Equipment, Appliance and Component Manufacturing 335 18,475 1,531 $96,440 5,144 28%
Transportation Equipment Manufacturing 336 89,465 5,553 $103,320 21,201 24%
Furniture and Related Product Manufacturing 337 23,281 922 $51,187 6,670 29%
Miscellaneous Manufacturing 339 30,364 3,114 $74,966 13,065 43%
Manufacturing, Total 31-33 842,513 32,353 $92,511 228,750 27%

*The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) is the federal system used to classify business establishments for statistical purposes.
**Based on total jobs in the industry including both genders. Earnings include salaries, wages, benefits and other compensation.

Source: Emsi


Of all subsectors within manufacturing, women had their highest share of employment in apparel manufacturing, with 63 percent of Texas jobs in 2017. In addition, women also accounted for more than half of employment in textile product mills and leather and allied product manufacturing. Food manufacturing had the highest number of positions held by women, with 35,952 jobs.

Women account for 20 percent of all jobs in fabricated metal product manufacturing, the largest employing subsector by job count and 25 percent of all jobs in chemical manufacturing, the subsector with the highest job growth.

Exhibit 3 lists the top occupations in manufacturing by number of jobs, all of them production oriented. Of manufacturing’s top five occupations, women are most represented as team assemblers and inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers and weighers. It’s important to note that women in manufacturing are more likely to work in professional and administrative positions, such as accountants and administrative assistants.

Exhibit 3: Top Occupations in Texas Manufacturing, 2017
Description Jobs in Sector Total Jobs
(All Sectors)*
Women's Share
of Total Jobs
Team Assemblers 35,256 48,798 38%
First-Line Supervisors of Production and Operating Workers 31,757 47,873 18%
Welders, Cutters, Solderers and Brazers 29,353 53,024 6%
Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers and Weighers 27,744 51,177 38%
Helpers — Production Workers 21,921 43,885 25%

*Other sectors employ workers with this occupation. This is a total for the occupation across sectors.

Source: Emsi


Earnings Growth

In 2016, women in construction earned $4,705 per month on average, up 19 percent from 2010 (Exhibit 4). Earnings in manufacturing vary widely among the subsectors. The three subsectors with the highest shares of women — apparel manufacturing, textile product mills and leather and allied product manufacturing — are among the lowest-paid manufacturing fields.

Exhibit 4: Growth in Average Monthly Earnings of Texas Women in Manufacturing (Indexed from 2010)

data below
Sector 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Manufacturing 0% 4% 8% 11% 15% 18% 19%
All Sectors 0% 3% 6% 8% 12% 15% 16%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau Quarterly Workforce Indicators

Conclusion

The manufacturing sector faces a number of challenges, most notably a shortage of trained and skilled workers. In the last few decades, industry leaders increasingly have viewed women as a solution to their skills needs. The number of women in manufacturing is growing slowly but steadily, due to various initiatives steering women into science, technology, engineering and math, but the sector is also working to change the public perception of manufacturing as a career choice and modernizing the workplace in ways that will attract younger generations.

Currently, women working in manufacturing generate additional business activities that ultimately support about 609,000 jobs in all other industries of the state economy. With time, Texas’ manufacturing sector will increasingly reap the benefits of women’s unique perspectives and leadership styles.


End Notes

  1. The multipliers used in this analysis are averages of the Emsi Input-Output Model’s regional Type 2 earnings, sales and jobs multipliers for all six-digit NAICS categories within the manufacturing sector. The Comptroller’s office acknowledges that averaging multipliers introduces aggregation bias. This is a general approximation of multiplier effects on the government sector. For a more precise analysis of multiplier effects, analyze each six-digit NAICS category in the sector and its respective multipliers.

    A direct effect is directly related to the production of the good or service of the industry in question. Indirect effects are generated in the businesses that supply goods and services to the industry that aid in the production of the good or service. Spending directly and indirectly generated incomes in the broader economy in turn creates induced effects.

    Using the manufacturing sector as an example, direct jobs would include workers in manufacturing. The jobs of a lumber wholesaler that supplies the manufacturing sector are indirect jobs. The jobs of restaurant workers who serve lunch to manufacturing and lumber wholesaler workers are induced.

  2. The Type 2 jobs multiplier effect mentioned is based solely on the number of jobs held by women.

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