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Glenn Hegar
Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts
Glenn Hegar
Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts
Glenn Hegar
Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts

economy

Other Services (excluding public administration) Overview Women in the Workforce

Other Services Snapshot | Printable Other Services Snapshot (PDF)

The other services (except public administration) sector consists of four subsectors — repair and maintenance; personal and laundry services; religious, grantmaking, civic, professional and similar organizations; and private households. In 2016, other services contributed $34.1 billion to the Texas economy. Women account for 51 percent of the state’s 482,000 jobs in this sector.

Quick Facts

  • Other services contributed $34.1 billion to Texas’ gross state product in 2016, more than 2 percent of the total.
  • The sector provided nearly 482,000 jobs in 2017, 4 percent of all Texas jobs.
  • Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional and similar organizations had the largest share of jobs in the sector, at 45 percent.
  • Between 2010 and 2017, the sector added more than 39,000 net additional positions, with the most growth in religious, grantmaking, civic, professional and similar organizations (more than 10,000 jobs).

Average regional multipliers for other services were used to estimate how an initial introduction of economic input in the sector, in the form of sales, jobs or earnings, affects the greater Texas economy. These multipliers capture “indirect” effects on industries that supply goods and services to the sector as well as “induced” effects on industries that sell local goods and services — such as housing, food or entertainment — to workers in the other services sector and its suppliers (Exhibit 1).1

Exhibit 1: Average Type 2 Multipliers for Other Services

Jobs*

  • Average Multiplier: 1.71
  • For every 100 jobs created, an additional 71 jobs are supported in all other industries within the Texas economy.

Sales

  • Average Multiplier: 2.29
  • For every $1 million in sales, an additional 1.29 million dollars in sales are generated by other industries within the Texas economy.

Earnings

  • Average Multiplier: 1.91
  • For every $1 million in earnings generated, an additional 910,000 dollars in earnings are generated by other industries within the Texas economy.

*The multiplier effect in this analysis is applicable to any worker in this industry and does not differentiate effects by gender.

Sources: Emsi and Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts

Texas Women in Other Services

In 2017, women held nearly 244,000 jobs in other services (Exhibit 2). Those jobs generate additional business activities that ultimately support about 172,000 other jobs elsewhere in the Texas economy.2

Exhibit 2: Texas Other Services Jobs, 2017
Description NAICS Code* Total Jobs 2010 to 2017 Change Average Earnings Per Job** Women's Jobs Women’s Share of Jobs
Repair and Maintenance 811 127,525 21,458 $54,078 26,273 21%
Personal and Laundry Services 812 110,837 18,631 $32,241 72,218 65%
Religious, Grantmaking, Civic, Professional and Similar Organizations 813 219,137 10,314 $28,007 124,260 57%
Private Households 814 24,887 -10,966 $23,011 21,186 85%
Other Services, Total 81 482,386 39,437 $35,614 243,937 51%

*The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) is the federal system used to classify business establishments for statistical purposes.
**Based on total jobs in the industry including both genders. Earnings include salaries, wages, benefits and other compensation.

Source: Emsi


In 2017, women accounted for more than half of all subsectors of other services, with the exception of repair and maintenance, which provides general and routine maintenance on machinery, equipment and other products.

The only subsector of other services to lose employment after the 2008 recession, private households,  had the highest share of jobs held by women in 2017 (85 percent). Private households, which employ workers such as cooks, maids, gardeners and caretakers, also have the highest share of jobs held by women across all subsectors of the Texas economy.

Exhibit 3 lists the top occupations employed in other services by number of jobs. Women dominate secretaries and administrative assistants; hairdressers, hairstylists and cosmetologists; and childcare workers, with 95 percent, 90 percent and 92 percent of jobs, respectively.

Exhibit 3: Top Occupations in Other Services, 2017
Description Jobs in Sector Total Jobs
(All Sectors)*
Women's Share
of Total Jobs
Secretaries and Administrative Assistants, Except Legal, Medical and Executive 21,181 207,273 95%
Hairdressers, Hairstylists and Cosmetologists 21,110 22,884 90%
Office Clerks, General 20,792 388,682 82%
Clergy 20,621 22,645 14%
Cleaners of Vehicles and Equipment 17,483 35,971 14%
Childcare Workers 16,711 72,121 92%
Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics 16,349 47,198 1%
Directors, Religious Activities and Education 13,033 13,325 53%
Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners 12,499 187,762 32%

*Other sectors employ workers with this occupation. This is a total for the occupation across sectors.

Source: Emsi


Earnings Growth

In 2016, women in other services earned an average $2,608 per month, up 25 percent from 2010 (Exhibit 4). While the category is among the lowest-paying sectors of the Texas economy, growth in the average monthly earnings of women in other services outpaced the growth in the average monthly earnings of all Texas women from 2010 to 2016.

Exhibit 4: Growth in Average Monthly Earnings of Texas Women in Other Services (Indexed from 2010)

data below
Sector 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Other Services 0% 3% 7% 13% 18% 23% 25%
All Sectors 0% 3% 6% 8% 12% 15% 16%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau Quarterly Workforce Indicators

Conclusion

Of all women-owned businesses nationwide, 23 percent were in other services in 2017 — the highest share of any sector. The other services sector provides tremendous opportunities to women entrepreneurs as well as workers, most notably those in private households and personal care and laundry services, where women account for more than 60 percent of total employment. Texas women working in other services generate additional business activities that ultimately support about 172,000 jobs in other industries throughout the state economy.


End Notes

  1. The multipliers used in this analysis are averages of the Emsi Input-Output Model’s regional Type 2 earnings, sales and jobs multipliers for all six-digit NAICS categories within this sector. The Comptroller’s office acknowledges that averaging multipliers introduces aggregation bias. This is a general approximation of multiplier effects on the government sector. For a more precise analysis of multiplier effects, analyze each six-digit NAICS category in the sector and its respective multipliers.

    A direct effect is directly related to the production of the good or service of the industry in question. Indirect effects are generated in the businesses that supply goods and services to the industry that aid in the production of the good or service. Spending directly and indirectly generated incomes in the broader economy in turn creates induced effects.

    Using the other services sector as an example, direct jobs would include the number of workers in other services. The jobs of a furniture wholesaler that supplies the other services sector are indirect jobs. The jobs of restaurant workers who serve lunch to other services and furniture wholesaler workers are induced.

  2. The Type 2 jobs multiplier effect mentioned is based solely on the number of jobs held by women.

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