The other services (except public administration) sector consists of four subsectors — repair and maintenance; personal and laundry services; religious, grantmaking, civic, professional and similar organizations; and private households. In 2016, other services contributed $34.1 billion to the Texas economy. Women account for 51 percent of the state’s 482,000 jobs in this sector.
Average regional multipliers for other services were used to estimate how an initial introduction of economic input in the sector, in the form of sales, jobs or earnings, affects the greater Texas economy. These multipliers capture “indirect” effects on industries that supply goods and services to the sector as well as “induced” effects on industries that sell local goods and services — such as housing, food or entertainment — to workers in the other services sector and its suppliers (Exhibit 1).1
*The multiplier effect in this analysis is applicable to any worker in this industry and does not differentiate effects by gender.
Sources: Emsi and Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts
In 2017, women held nearly 244,000 jobs in other services (Exhibit 2). Those jobs generate additional business activities that ultimately support about 172,000 other jobs elsewhere in the Texas economy.2
|Description||NAICS Code*||Total Jobs||2010 to 2017 Change||Average Earnings Per Job**||Women's Jobs||Women’s Share of Jobs|
|Repair and Maintenance||811||127,525||21,458||$54,078||26,273||21%|
|Personal and Laundry Services||812||110,837||18,631||$32,241||72,218||65%|
|Religious, Grantmaking, Civic, Professional and Similar Organizations||813||219,137||10,314||$28,007||124,260||57%|
|Other Services, Total||81||482,386||39,437||$35,614||243,937||51%|
*The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) is the federal system used to classify business establishments for statistical purposes.
**Based on total jobs in the industry including both genders. Earnings include salaries, wages, benefits and other compensation.
In 2017, women accounted for more than half of all subsectors of other services, with the exception of repair and maintenance, which provides general and routine maintenance on machinery, equipment and other products.
The only subsector of other services to lose employment after the 2008 recession, private households, had the highest share of jobs held by women in 2017 (85 percent). Private households, which employ workers such as cooks, maids, gardeners and caretakers, also have the highest share of jobs held by women across all subsectors of the Texas economy.
Exhibit 3 lists the top occupations employed in other services by number of jobs. Women dominate secretaries and administrative assistants; hairdressers, hairstylists and cosmetologists; and childcare workers, with 95 percent, 90 percent and 92 percent of jobs, respectively.
|Description||Jobs in Sector||Total Jobs
of Total Jobs
|Secretaries and Administrative Assistants, Except Legal, Medical and Executive||21,181||207,273||95%|
|Hairdressers, Hairstylists and Cosmetologists||21,110||22,884||90%|
|Office Clerks, General||20,792||388,682||82%|
|Cleaners of Vehicles and Equipment||17,483||35,971||14%|
|Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics||16,349||47,198||1%|
|Directors, Religious Activities and Education||13,033||13,325||53%|
|Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners||12,499||187,762||32%|
*Other sectors employ workers with this occupation. This is a total for the occupation across sectors.
In 2016, women in other services earned an average $2,608 per month, up 25 percent from 2010 (Exhibit 4). While the category is among the lowest-paying sectors of the Texas economy, growth in the average monthly earnings of women in other services outpaced the growth in the average monthly earnings of all Texas women from 2010 to 2016.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau Quarterly Workforce Indicators
Of all women-owned businesses nationwide, 23 percent were in other services in 2017 — the highest share of any sector. The other services sector provides tremendous opportunities to women entrepreneurs as well as workers, most notably those in private households and personal care and laundry services, where women account for more than 60 percent of total employment. Texas women working in other services generate additional business activities that ultimately support about 172,000 jobs in other industries throughout the state economy.
The multipliers used in this analysis are averages of the Emsi Input-Output Model’s regional Type 2 earnings, sales and jobs multipliers for all six-digit NAICS categories within this sector. The Comptroller’s office acknowledges that averaging multipliers introduces aggregation bias. This is a general approximation of multiplier effects on the government sector. For a more precise analysis of multiplier effects, analyze each six-digit NAICS category in the sector and its respective multipliers.
A direct effect is directly related to the production of the good or service of the industry in question. Indirect effects are generated in the businesses that supply goods and services to the industry that aid in the production of the good or service. Spending directly and indirectly generated incomes in the broader economy in turn creates induced effects.
Using the other services sector as an example, direct jobs would include the number of workers in other services. The jobs of a furniture wholesaler that supplies the other services sector are indirect jobs. The jobs of restaurant workers who serve lunch to other services and furniture wholesaler workers are induced.