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Glenn Hegar
Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts
Glenn Hegar
Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts
Glenn Hegar
Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts

economy

Education and Health Services Overview Women in the Workforce

Education and Health Services Snapshot | Printable Education and Health Services Snapshot (PDF)

The education and health services industry, sometimes called a “super sector,” is comprised of two distinct sectors – educational services and health care and social assistance. In 2016, education and health services contributed $104.8 billion to Texas’ GDP.  In 2017, women held 77 percent of the state’s 1.6 million jobs in the industry – the highest share of female employment among all industries in Texas.

Quick Facts

  • Education and health services contributed $104.8 billion to Texas’ GDP in 2016 – over 6 percent of total GDP.
  • The industry had more than 1.6 million jobs in 2017 – 13 percent of all jobs in the state.
  • Between 2010 and 2017, education and health services gained more than 294,000 positions, with the most growth in ambulatory health care services (more than 134,000 jobs).

Average regional multipliers for education and health services were used to estimate how an initial introduction of economic input in the industry, in the form of sales, jobs or earnings, affect the greater Texas economy. These multipliers capture “indirect” effects on industries that supply goods and services to the industry as well as “induced” effects on industries that sell local goods and services — such as housing, food or entertainment — to workers in the education and health services industry and its suppliers (Exhibit 1).1

Exhibit 1: Average Type 2 Multipliers for Education and Health Services

Description Sales Jobs* Earnings
Education and Health Services 2.43 1.93 1.94
Educational Services 2.5 1.65 1.95
Healthcare and Social Assistance 2.4 2.05 1.93

*The multiplier effect in this analysis is applicable to any worker in the Education and Health Services industry and does not differentiate effects by gender.

Sources: Emsi and Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts

Industry Jobs

For every 100 jobs created by the education and health services industry, an additional 93 jobs are created or affected in all other industries within the Texas economy.

Industry Sales

For every $1 million in sales generated by the education and health services industry, an additional $1.43 million in sales are generated in all other industries within the Texas economy.

Industry Earnings

For every $1 million in earnings generated by the education and health services industry, an additional $0.93 million in earnings are generated by all other industries within the Texas economy.

The multiplier effects for each sector within the industry vary, particularly in job effects. The healthcare and social assistance sector has the highest jobs multiplier within the industry – for every 100 jobs created in the healthcare and social assistance sector, an additional 105 are created or affected in all other industries of the Texas economy.

Texas Women in Education and Health Services

In 2017, women held nearly 1.3 million jobs in education and health services, accounting for 77 percent of the industry’s total jobs in the state (Exhibit 2). Those 1.3 million jobs generate additional business activities that ultimately support nearly 1.2 million jobs in all other industries of the Texas economy.2

Exhibit 2: Education and Health Services Direct Jobs, 2017
Description NAICS Code* 2017 Direct Jobs Average Earnings Per Job** Number of Employed Women Women’s Share of Jobs
Educational Services 61 203,684 $50,580 130,449 64%
Elementary and Secondary Schools 6111 74,818 $46,119 56,054 75%
Junior Colleges 6112 2,151 $37,414 1,299 60%
Colleges, Universities and Professional Schools 6113 70,423 $59,881 38,847 55%
Business Schools and Computer and Management Training 6114 5,404 $84,589 2,785 52%
Technical and Trade Schools 6115 10,382 $63,457 4,880 47%
Other Schools and Instruction 6116 30,807 $26,538 20,147 65%
Educational Support Services 6117 9,700 $64,016 6,437 66%
Health Care and Social Assistance 62 1,438,775 $56,844 1,131,834 79%
Ambulatory Health Care Services 621 715,050 $62,367 560,116 78%
Hospitals 622 327,746 $75,198 250,721 76%
Nursing and Residential Care Facilities 623 184,993 $37,726 147,794 80%
Social Assistance 624 210,986 $26,380 173,203 82%
Education and Health Services Total 61-62 1,642,459 $56,068 1,262,283 77%

*The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) is the federal system used to classify business establishments for statistical purposes.
**Based on total jobs in the industry including both genders.

Source: Emsi


Education Services Sector

In 2017, women held 64 percent of all jobs in Texas’ education services sector, which includes establishments providing specialized instruction and training usually delivered by instructors or teachers. Establishments in the education services sector are mostly privately owned, as the majority of Texas’ public educational institutions are classified within the government sector.3

On average, workers in education services earned $50,580 in 2017.

Sector-Specific Occupations

Exhibit 3 lists the highest-paying occupations with the highest shares of female employment. Women made up 97.2 percent of preschool and kindergarten teachers in 2017, one of the highest female shares among all Texas occupations.

Exhibit 3: Highest-Paying, Women-Dominated Education Services Occupations
Description SOC Code 2017 Direct Jobs Avg. Hourly Earnings*  Number of Employed Women Women's Share of Jobs
Librarians 25-4020 10,265 $28.17 8,824 86.0%
Special Education Teachers 25-2050 29,215 $27.18 25,307 86.6%
Elementary and Middle School Teachers 25-2020 214,568 $26.37 173,650 80.9%
Preschool and Kindergarten Teachers 25-2010 50,816 $19.69 49,368 97.2%

*Federal agencies use the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system to classify occupations into 459 broad occupations (detailed), 98 minor groups and 23 major groups (aggregated).
**Based on total jobs in the industry including both genders.

Source: Emsi


Women made up significantly lower shares of two of the sectors’ highest-paying occupations, however — education administrators (64.8 percent) and postsecondary teachers (46.8 percent), which in 2017 paid average hourly earnings of $40.49 and $34.63, respectively.

Health Care and Social Assistance Sector

Women make up 79 percent of the health care and social assistance sector, which includes establishments in which trained professionals deliver medical care or social assistance.  In 2017, workers in the sector earned $56,068, on average.

Sector-Specific Occupations

Exhibit 4 lists the top-paying occupations with the highest shares of female employment within this sector.

Though women make up a commanding share of employment within the sector, they are much less concentrated in its highest-paying occupations, including physicians and surgeons (27.8 percent), dentists (25.1 percent) and podiatrists (23.0 percent), which in 2017 had average hourly earnings of $98.96, $86.05 and $79.82, respectively.

Women also accounted for high shares of employment in some of the lowest-paid occupations in the sector, including counselors (71.1 percent), social workers (80.8 percent) and licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses (89.7 percent), which have average hourly earnings of $25.85, $23.78 and $22.17, respectively. Even so, these earnings are near or higher than the state average wage.

Exhibit 4: Highest-Paying, Women-Dominated Health Care and Social Assistance Occupations
Description SOC Code 2017 Direct Jobs Avg. Hourly Earnings*  Number of Employed Women Women's Share of Jobs
Nurse Practitioners 29-1170 9,149 $52.91 8,063 88.1%
Nurse Midwives 29-1160 230 $46.28 202 87.8%
Therapists 29-1120 53,161 $39.05 40,003 75.2%
Audiologists 29-1180 947 $38.04 737 77.8%
Dental Hygienists 29-2020 12,615 $35.09 11,854 94.0%

*Federal agencies use the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system to classify occupations into 459 broad occupations (detailed), 98 minor groups and 23 major groups (aggregated).
**Based on total jobs in the industry including both genders.

Source: Emsi


Conclusion

Texas women have a large impact on two major determinants of overall quality of life and economic vitality – education and health. In addition, the number of jobs held by Texas women working in the education and health services industry generates additional business activities that ultimately support nearly 1.2 million jobs in industries throughout the state economy.

End Notes

  1. The multipliers used in this analysis are averages of the Emsi Input-Output Model’s regional Type 2 earnings, sales and jobs multipliers for all six-digit NAICS categories within the health and educational services sector. The Comptroller’s office acknowledges that averaging multipliers introduces aggregation bias. This is a general approximation of multiplier effects on the government sector. For a more precise analysis of multiplier effects, analyze each six-digit NAICS category in the sector and its respective multipliers.

    A direct effect is directly related to the production of the good or service of the industry in question. Indirect effects are generated in the businesses that supply goods and services to the industry that aid in the production of the good or service. Spending directly and indirectly generated incomes in the broader economy in turn creates induced effects. Using the government sector in an example, direct jobs would include the number of workers in government. The jobs of a computer wholesaler that supplies the government sector are indirect jobs. The jobs of restaurant workers that serve the government and computer wholesaler workers lunch are induced.

    These benefits include both indirect and induced effects. Direct employment refers to jobs directly related to the production of the good or service, such as the number of construction workers in residential construction. Indirect employment is generated in businesses that supply goods and services to the industry in question, such as the toolmakers that equip construction workers. When directly and indirectly generated incomes are spent on items in the broader economy, it gives rise to induced employment effects, such as restaurant workers who serve lunch to the construction workers and toolmakers.

  2. The Type 2 jobs multiplier effect mentioned is based solely on the number of jobs held by women.
  3. Interview with Phil Arnold, labor market dissemination analyst, Texas Workforce Commission, February 22, 2018.

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