The natural resources and mining industry, sometimes called a “super sector,” comprises two distinct sectors — agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting and mining, which engages in growing crops, raising animals and harvesting timber and fish; and quarrying and oil and gas extraction, which extracts naturally occurring minerals and gases.
In 2016, natural resources and mining contributed $122.6 billion to Texas’ economy. Women account for 22 percent of the state’s 290,000 jobs in this industry.
Average regional multipliers for natural resources and mining were used to estimate how an initial introduction of economic input in the industry, in the form of sales, jobs or earnings, affect the greater Texas economy. These multipliers capture “indirect” effects on industries that supply goods and services to the industry as well as “induced” effects on industries that sell local goods and services, such as housing, food or entertainment, to workers in the natural resources and mining industry and its suppliers (Exhibit 1).1
|Natural Resources and Mining||2.02||2.11||2.10|
|Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting||2.07||1.58||1.79|
|Mining, Quarrying and Oil and Gas Extraction||2.00||2.43||2.28|
*The multiplier effect in this analysis is applicable to any worker in the trade, transportation and utilities industry and does not differentiate effects by gender.
Sources: Emsi and Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts
The multiplier effects for each sector within the industry vary, particularly in job and earning effects.
In 2017, women held nearly 65,000 jobs in natural resources and mining (Exhibit 2). Those jobs generate additional business activities that ultimately support about 73,000 jobs in all other industries of the Texas economy.2
|Description||NAICS Code*||2017 Total Jobs||2010 to 2017 Change||Avg. Annual Earnings Per Job**||2017 Women’s Jobs||Women's Share of Jobs||Location Quotient (Women)***|
|Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting||11||78,563||0.67||$37,208||21,269||27%||0.82|
|Animal Production and Aquaculture||112||25,160||1.16||$40,690||7,051||28%||0.94|
|Forestry and Logging||113||1,669||0.36||$57,046||247||15%||1.25|
|Fishing, Hunting and Trapping||114||568||0.83||$49,024||134||24%||1.32|
|Support Activities for Agriculture and Forestry||115||29,801||0.68||$34,516||8,217||28%||0.77|
|Mining, Quarrying and Oil and Gas Extraction||21||213,738||4.25||$154,048||44,183||21%||1.28|
|Oil and Gas Extraction||211||83,349||6.37||$227,437||24,717||30%||1.09|
|Mining (except Oil and Gas)||212||11,032||0.73||$88,294||1,614||15%||1.41|
|Support Activities for Mining||213||119,356||5.39||$108,877||17,852||15%||1.12|
|Natural Resources and Mining||11-21||292,301||-||$122,645||65,452||22%||-|
*The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) is the federal system used to classify business establishments for statistical purposes.
**Based on total jobs in the industry including both genders. Earning include salaries, wages, benefits and other compensation.
***Location quotient (LQ) indicates the relative concentration of women in these jobs in Texas versus in the nation as a whole. The higher the LQ value, the more “concentrated” women’s employment is in Texas.
The agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting sector produces relatively little employment within this industry, accounting for nearly 27 percent of the total (292,301). Note, however, that the sector employs a large number of seasonal jobs from year to year, as aspects of the sector’s operations are heavily dependent on ideal weather conditions.
Of all Texas women working in natural resources and mining, 32 percent (21,269) work in agriculture, fishing and hunting. Women hold 27 percent of all jobs in this sector.
Within agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, the support activities for agriculture and forestry subsector has the highest number of jobs held by women — 8,217. Women hold the highest share of total jobs (28 percent) in both support activities for agriculture and forestry and animal production and aquaculture, with 8,217 and 7,051 jobs, respectively.
Based on location quotient (LQ), a measure of employment concentration in a given area, the concentrations of forestry and logging and fishing, hunting and trapping jobs held by Texas women were higher than the national concentration in 2017, based on respective LQs of 1.25 and 1.32.
In 2017, women held 65,452 of Texas jobs in mining, quarrying and oil and gas, accounting for 22 percent of the total. Though the support activities for mining subsector has the sector’s highest number of total jobs, women held the highest number of jobs within oil and gas extraction subsector (24,717), which also had the highest share of jobs held by women (30 percent).
Based on an LQ of 4.25, jobs in mining, quarrying and oil and gas extraction are heavily concentrated in Texas compared to the nation. While jobs in mining other than oil and gas are not highly concentrated in Texas, jobs held by women in this subsector are, based on an LQ of 1.41.
From 2010 to 2016, average monthly earnings of women increased in both sectors of natural resources and mining. Women working in the agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting sector saw their earnings increase the most, by 23 percent during the period (Exhibit 3). Mining, quarrying and oil and gas extraction is the highest-paying sector in the state. Texas women working in the sector earned a monthly average of $8,997 in 2016, while women in agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting had average monthly earnings of $2,600.
|Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting||0%||2%||6%||9%||14%||19%||23%|
|Mining, Quarrying and Oil and Gas Extraction||0%||5%||8%||8%||11%||15%||19%|
Source: U.S. Census Bureau Quarterly Workforce Indicators
Texas women working in natural resources and mining generate additional business activities that ultimately support about 73,000 jobs in other industries throughout the state economy. Though women do not account for high shares of employment in the natural resources and mining industry or its sectors, the concentration of jobs held by women in some of the industry’s various subsectors is higher in Texas than in the nation.
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The multipliers used in this analysis are averages of the Emsi Input-Output Model’s regional Type 2 earnings, sales and jobs multipliers for all six-digit NAICS categories within the natural resources and mining industry. The Comptroller’s office acknowledges that averaging multipliers introduces aggregation bias. This is a general approximation of multiplier effects on the natural resources and mining industry. For a more precise analysis of multiplier effects, analyze each six-digit NAICS category in the industry and the respective multipliers.
A direct effect is directly related to the production of the good or service of the industry in question. Indirect effects are generated in the businesses that supply goods and services to the industry that aid in the production of the good or service. Spending directly and indirectly generated incomes in the broader economy in turn creates induced effects. Using the agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting sector in an example, direct jobs would include the number of workers in the sector. The jobs of a machinery wholesaler that supplies the agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting sector are indirect jobs. The jobs of restaurant workers that serve the agricultural and machinery wholesale workers lunch are induced.